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Incoterms repository >>
贸易术语 Incoterms repository
外贸常识 trade repository
报送指南 apply to the customs guide
检验检疫 inspection quarantine
保险知识 insurance knowledge
运输导航 transportation guide
国际结算 international settlement
加工贸易 processing trade
世界时差 world time
世界货币 currency code
商贸展览 trade show
世界区号 world code
国家评级 country rating table

New wisdom Miner's lamp >>
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LED miner's lamp NEW
KL8M mineral lamp
KL10M mineral lamp
KL8M The old lamp (left) compare with our li-ion battery lamp (right)
Charger >>
GWB-15 Portable Charger
KCLA-102 series charger rack
ZLCD-34 charger module to reborn the old rack

New wisdom pen >>
Metal pen
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Refill And Ink
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Knowledge battery and lamp >>
A Glossary of Battery Terms
About lamp special vocabulary comparation list
Battery Energy Density
Battery FAQ
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Battery Tips Contents
Charging lithium-ion batteries
Discharge methods
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Future battery
history mineral lamp
How charge
Industrial Standard Cylindrical Battery Sizes
lithium-ion the ideal battery
Rechargeable able Battery
the best battery
When was the battery invented

Electronic products
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New wisdom knowledge >>
Pen knowledge
Proverbs of Pen
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Parker Pen Story
Ballpoint Pens Work
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acme pens
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When was the battery invented?
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How to charge - when to charge table
Charging lithium-ion batteries
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报送指南 apply to the customs guide
关于技术贸易 (About technology trading)
从价关税 (Ad Valorem Duties)
从价 (Ad Valorem)
动物产品 (Animal Product)
反倾销税 (Anti-dumping Duties)
反倾销税 (Anti-Dumping)
自主关税 (Autonomous Tariff)
单方面转移收支 (Balance of Unilateral Transfers)
保税制度 (Bonded System)
约束税率 (Bound Rate)
布鲁塞尔估价定义 (Brussels Definition of Value BDV)
出厂价格 (Cost Price)
成本 (Cost)
反补贴税 (Counter Vailing Duties)
货币 (Currency)
海关 (Customhouse)
关税合作理事会 (Customs Co-operation Council)
关税 (Customs Duty)
关税同盟 (Customs Union)
海关估价 (Customs Valuation)
差别关税 (Differential Duties)
有效保护率 (Effective Vate of Protection)
汇兑税 (Exchange Tax)
出口管制 (Export Contral)
出口信贷国家担保制 (Export credit Guarantee)
出口税 (Export Duty)
出口信贷 (Export Finance)
出口许可证 (Export Licence)
出口退税 (Export Rebates)
出口限制 (Export Restriction)
出口补贴 (Export Subsidies)
规费 (Fees)
自主关税 (free tariff)
如何报关、结关和清关? (how to apply to the customs, settle and clear the customs)
怎样进行进出口货物的查验 (how to inspect the import and export merchandise)
处于发展初级阶段 (In the Early Etages of Development)
对技术进出口的管理 (management of technology trading)
优惠差额 (Margin of Preference)
多种汇率 (Multiple Rates of Exchange)
汇兑平价 (Par Value of Exchange)
超保护贸易政策 (Policy of Super-protection)
优惠税率 (Preferential Rate)
初级产品 (Primary Commodity)
产品对产品减税方式 (Product by Product Reduction of Tariff)
保护关税 (Protective Tariff)
出口动物产品检疫 (Quarantine of Export Animal products)
互惠原则 (Reciprocity)
对报关期限的规定 (regulate in the term of clearing customs)
我国的报关注册登记制度 (regulate of customs clearing registeration in China)
储备货币 (Reserve Currency)
关税和贸易总协定秘书处 (Secretariat of GATT)
从量税 (Specific Duty)
关税减让 (Tariff Concession)
关税升级 (Tariff Escalation)
关税水平 (Tariff Level)
关税配额 (Tariff Quota)
关税税则 (Tariff)
国内税 (Taxes or Excise Duty)
关税和贸易总协定 (The General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade)
处理剩余产品的指导原则 (The Guiding Principle of Clealing With the Surplus Agricultural Products)
最惠国税率 (The Most-favoured-nation Rate of Duty)
初级产品的价格 (The Price of Primang Products)
过境关税 (Transit Duty)
差价关税 (Variable Import Levies)
船舶 (Vessel)
报关时需要提交哪些单证 (what kind of documents need in clearing the customs)
 

关于技术贸易
  技术、技术转让、技术引进
(一)技术的含义及特征
   1、技术的含义
  技术贸易的形象是技术。什么是技术呢?国际工业产权组织认为:“技术是指制造一种产品或提供一项服务的系统的知识。
  2.技术的特征 技术有三个显著特征: (1)无形性。技术是一种看不见摸不着 的知识性的东西;它只能靠理解去把握。有些技术可用语言来表达;而有些技术只存在于“能人”的经验中。 (2)系统性。零星的技术知识不能称之为技术。只有关于产品的生产原理、设计,生产操作,设备安装调试,管理、销售等各个环节的知识、经验和技艺的综合,才能称之为技术。 (3)商品属性。技术是无形的特殊商品。正因为技术不仅有使用价值,而且也有交换价值,所以它才能充当技术贸易的交易标的。
(二)技术转让
  技术转让是指拥有技术的一方通过某种方式将其技术出让给另一方使用的行为。物品转让是所有权的转让,与此不同,技术转让一般只是技术使用权的转让。一件物品只能完整地转让给一个对方,原物主也将因转让而丧失对该物的所有权。而一项技术可同时完整地转让给多个对方,且原有技术的持有者并不因转让而失去对该技术的所有权。
  技术转让是技术转移的一种特殊形式。技术转移是指技术从一领域传向另一领域或从一地区传向另一地区的过程。技术转让则是其中有特定双方的,以援助、赠与或出售为方式的一类技术转移形式。
  技术转让的类型,按其是否跨国界可分为国内技术转让和国际技术转让;按其有偿性可分为商业性技术转让和非商业性技术转让;按其方向可分为横向技术转让即企业之间的技术转让和纵向技术转让即大公司向其子公司或科研机构向企业转让技术。
(三)技术引进
  使国外的技术转让到国内,就是技术引进。具体地说,技术引进是指一个国家或企业引入国外的技术知识和经验,以及所必需附带的设备、仪器和器材,用以发展本国经济和推动科技进步的做法。
  技术引进是一个特定的概念。
   (1)技术引进是一种跨国行为。
   (2)技术引进与设备进口有着原则区别。人们常将“技术”广义化,把技术分为软件技术和硬件技术。软件技术就是前面提到的技术知识、经验和技艺,属纯技术;硬件技术是指机器设备之类的物化技术。只从国外购人机器设备而不买人软件技术,一般称之为设备进口。若只从国外购人软件技术或与此同时又附带购进一些设备,这种行为才能称为技术引进。
   (3)技术引进的目的是为提高引进国或企业的制造能力、技术水平和管理水平。要达到目的只有引进软件技术,通过自我消化吸收,才能做到。


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Address: 4-306, Xianglixincuen, Hongli West Road, Shenzhen, China
TEL:86-755-83911841 86-13316919837  86-13332985903   POSTCODE:518034   Contact person: Tom Ding;  Mary Deng
FAX:86-755-83906115 EMAIL: tom@n-wisdom.com  szdingbp@public.szptt.net.cn  dingbp_szb@21cn.net

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