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最新贸易术语Incoterms 2000 CFR CIF CIP DDU CPT DAF DDP DES DEQ FCA EXW FAS FOB 美国对外贸易概述     


FOB 船上交货(……指定装运港)(FOB, Free On Board (...named port of shipment))

  “船上交货(……指定装运港)”是当货物在指定的装运港越过船舷,卖方即完成交货。这意味着买方必须从该点起承当货物灭失或损坏的一切风险。FOB术语要求卖方办理货物出口清关手续。

  该术语仅适用于海运或内河运输。如当事各方无意越过船舷交货,则应使用FCA术语。


A 卖方义务

B 买方义务

A1 提供符合合同规定的货物

  卖方必须提供符合销售合同规定的货物和商业发票或有同等作用的电子讯息,以及合同可能要求的、证明货物符合合同规定的其他任何凭证。

B1 支付价款

  买方必须按照销售合同规定支付价款。 A2 许可证、其他许可和手续

  卖方必须自担风险和费用,取得任何出口许可证或其他官方许可,并在需要办理海关手续时,办理货物出口货物所需的一切海关手续。

B2 许可证、其他许可和手续

  买方必须自担风险和费用,取得任何进口许可证或其他官方许可,并在需要办理海关手续时,办理货物进口和在必要时从他国过境所需的一切海关手续。

A3 运输合同和保险合同

  a)运输合同
  无义务。

  b)保险合同
  无义务。


B3 运输合同和保险合同

  a)运输合同
  买方必须自付费用订立从指定的装运港运输货物的合同。   b)保险合同
  无义务。

A4 交货

  卖方必须在约定的日期或期限内,在指定的装运港,按照该港习惯方式,将货物交至买方指定的船只上。

B4 受领货物

  买方必须在卖方按照A4规定交货时受领货物。

A5 风险转移

  除B5规定者外,卖方必须承担货物灭失或损坏的一切风险,直至货物在指定的装运港越过船舷为止。

B5 风险转移

  买方必须按照下述规定承担货物灭失或损坏的一切风险: 自货物在指定的装运港越过船舷时起;及由于买方未按照B7规定通知卖方,或其指定的船只未按时到达,或未接收货物,或较按照B7通知的时间提早停止装货,则自约定的交货日期或交货期限届满之日起,但以该项货物已正式划归合同项下,即清楚地划出或以其他方式确定为合同项下之货物为限。
 
A6 费用划分

  除B6规定者外,卖方必须支付与货物有关的一切费用,直至货物在指定的装运港越过船舷时为止;及在需要办理海关手续时,货物出口需要办理的海关手续费用及出口时应交纳的一切关税、税款和其他费用。

B6 费用划分

  买方必须支付货物在指定的装运港越过船舷之时起与货物有关的一切费用;及由于买方指定的船只未按时到达,或未接收上述货物,或较按照B7通知的时间提早停止装货,或买方未能按照B7规定给予卖方相应的通知而发生的一切额外费用,但以该项货物已正式划归合同项下,即清楚地划出或以其他方式确定为合同项下之货物为限;及在需要办理海关手续时,货物进口应交纳的一切关税、税款和其他费用,及办理海关手续的费用,以及货物从他国过境的费用。

A7 通知买方

  卖方必须给予买方说明货物已按照A4规定交货的充分通知。

B7 通知卖方

  买方必须给予卖方有关船名、装船点和要求交货时间的充分通知。

A8 交货凭证、运输单据或有同等作用的电子讯息

  卖方必须自付费用向买方提供证明货物已按照A4规定交货的通常单据。

  除非前项所述单据是运输单据,否则应买方要求并由其承担风险和费用,卖方必须给予买方一切协助,以取得有关运输合同的运输单据(如可转让提单、不可转让海运单、内河运输单据或多式联运单据)。如买卖双方约定使用电子方式通讯,则前项所述单据可以由具有同等作用的电子数据交换(EDI)讯息代替。

B8 交货凭证、运输单据或有同等作用的电子讯息

  买方必须接受按照A8规定提供的交货凭证。

A9 查对、包装、标记

  卖方必须支付为按照A4规定交货所需进行的查对费用(如核对货物品质、丈量、过磅、点数的费用)。

  卖方必须自付费用,提供按照卖方订立销售合同前已知的该货物运输(如运输方式、目的港)所要求的包装(除非按照相关行业惯例,合同所述货物无需包装发运)。包装应作适当标记。

B9 货物检验

  买方必须支付任何装运前检验的费用,但出口国有关当局强制进行的检验除外。

A10 其他义务

  应买方要求并由其承当风险和费用,卖方必须给予买方一切协助,以帮助其取得由装运地国和/或原产地国所签发或传送的、为买方进口货物可能要求的和必要时从他国过境所需的任何单据或有同等作用的电子讯息(A8所列的除外)。

  应买方要求,卖方必须向买方提供投保所需的信息。

B10 其他义务

  买方必须支付因获取A10所述单据或有同等作用的电子讯息所发生的一切费用,并偿付卖方因给予协助而发生的费用。

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FOB, Free On Board (...named port of shipment)

In Free On Board, the seller/exporter/manufacturer clears the goods for export and is responsible for the costs and risks of delivering the goods past the ship's rail at the named port of shipment.

The Free On Board term is used only for ocean or inland waterway transport.

The "named place" in Free On Board and all "F" terms is domestic to the seller.

Normal payment terms for Free On Board transactions include cash in advance, open account, and letters of credit.

The Free On Board term is commonly used in the sale of bulk commodity cargo such as oil, grains, and ore where passing the ship's rail is important. However, it is also commonly used in shipping container loads of other goods.

The key document in FOB transactions is the "On Board Bill of Lading."

Sellers and buyers often confuse the Free On Board term with Free Carrier. Free On Board (FOB) does not mean loading the goods onto a truck at the seller's place of business. Free On Board is used only in reference to delivering the goods past a ship's rail in ocean or inland waterway transport. Free Carrier, on the other hand, is applicable to all modes of transport.

Examples

FOB Free on Board "Vessel ABC" Buenos Aires Argentina
FOB Free on Board Gdansk Poland

Incoterm Category

FOB is an "F" Incoterm where the seller/exporter is responsible for delivering the goods, export cleared, on board a ship, and does not bear risk or costs afterwards.

Modes of Transport Covered

Used only for ocean or inland waterway transport.

Seller's Responsibilities (summary)

  1. Goods-Provide the goods, commercial invoice or electronic message, and other documentation as required by the sales contract.

  2. Licenses and Customs Formalities-Obtain at own risk and cost any export licenses and authorizations and carry out all export formalities and procedures.

  3. Carriage and Insurance-The seller has no obligation to the buyer to provide carriage of goods or insurance.

  4. Delivery-Deliver the goods on board the named vessel at the named port and place and at the time stipulated in the sales contract.

  5. Risk Transfer-Assume all risks of loss or damage to the goods until they have passed the ship's rail on the named vessel as provided in the sales contract.

  6. Costs-Pay all costs until the goods have passed the ship's rail on the named vessel as well as all costs relating to export including duties, taxes and customs formalities.

  7. Notice to the Buyer-Provide sufficient notice to the buyer that the goods have been delivered on board the named vessel.

  8. Proof of Delivery, Transport Documents-Provide the buyer with a proof of delivery or a transport document, or to assist the buyer in obtaining a transport document.

  9. Checking, Packing, Marking-Pay all costs associated with checking the quality and quantity of the goods to be in conformity with the sales contract. Provide appropriate packing (unless the goods are traditionally delivered unpackaged) as required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the buyer has made transport circumstances known to the seller prior to the execution of the sales contract. Provide marking appropriate to the packaging.

  10. Other-Provide the buyer at the buyer's request, risk and expense any and all assistance in securing documentation originating in the country of export or of origin required for import and transshipment through another country. Provide the buyer at the buyer's request information necessary to obtain insurance.

Buyer's Responsibilities (summary)

  1. Payment-Pay for the goods as provided in the sales contract.

  2. Licenses and Customs Formalities-Obtain at own risk and cost any import licenses and authorizations and carry out all import formalities.

  3. Carriage and Insurance-Provide for contract of carriage from the named port of shipment. No obligation for insurance.

  4. Taking Delivery-Take delivery of the goods as provided in the sales contract.

  5. Risk Transfer-Assume all risks of loss or damage from the time the goods have passed the ship's rail at the port of shipment.

  6. Costs-Pay all costs for carriage and insurance from the time the goods have passed the ship's rail at the port of shipment in accordance with the terms of the sales contract. Pay all costs resulting from failure of the named ship to arrive on time or to be able to take the goods. Pay all costs relating to import formalities including duties, taxes and other charges including transshipment.

  7. Notice to Seller-Give sufficient notice to the seller of the name of the vessel, the time or period for delivery and the place of delivery.

  8. Proof of Delivery, Transport Document-Accept the seller's proof of delivery or transport document.

  9. Inspection(s)-Pay for the costs of pre-shipment inspection except inspections required by the country of export.

  10. Other-Pay all costs associated with securing documentation originating in the country of origin or export as required for import. Reimburse seller for seller's costs in providing such documentation or assistance.

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